تعیین مقدار بهینه کمپوست دامی به منظور مهار کردن رواناب و هدررفت خاک تحت باران شبیه سازی شده

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی ساری، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی ساری، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران

3 استاد گروه مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی ساری، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ایران

چکیده

با توجه به اینکه خاک زیادی از سطح آبخیز، توسط عوامل فرسایشی از دسترس خارج می­گردد. کاربرد روش­های مدیریتی برای مهار کردن هدررفت خاک لازم است. بنابراین، استفاده از افزودنی­های قابل دسترس، اقتصادی و دوست­دار محیط­زیست می­تواند در مهار کردن رواناب و هدررفتن خاک راه­کار مناسبی باشد. از طرفی، حفاظت آب و خاک نیازمند به تعیین مقدار بهینه­ی افزودنی­های خاک است تا علاوه بر کاهش هزینه­ها از آلودگی­های آب با کاربرد کودهای شیمیایی نیز جلوگیری شود. با وجود این، تعیین مقدار بهینه­ی افزودنی­های مختلف خاک با هدف کمّی­سازی اثر آن­ها بر مؤلفه­های رواناب و هدررفت خاک کم­تر توجه شده است. بر همین اساس، در این پژوهش، تأثیر کاربرد مقادیر مختلف کمپوست کود دامی معادل 2/25، 4/5، 9/0 و 18/0 تن در هکتار  بر میزان رواناب و هدررفت خاک از کرت­های آزمایشی با مساحت 0/5 مترمربع، شیب 20 درصد، با استفاده از شدت بارش50 میلی­متر بر ساعت به مدت 10 دقیقه در یک خاک کشاورزی جمع­آوری شده از شهرستان ساری در سال 1396 انجام پذیرفت. نتایج تجزیه و تحلیل آماری دلالت بر اثر معنی­دار مقادیر مختلف کمپوست کود دامی بر افزایش زمان شروع رواناب و کاهش حجم و ضریب رواناب، هدررفت خاک و غلظت رسوب در سطح 99% داشتند. همچنین، بررسی اثر حفاظتی و گروه­بندی مقادیر مختلف کمپوست کود دامی نشان داد که کمپوست با مقدار 9/0 تن در هکتار به دلیل اثر یکسان آن با مقدار 18/0 تن در هکتار بر تغییرات ضریب رواناب و غلظت رسوب، مقدار مذکور را می­توان به­عنوان مقدار بهینه و کاربردی در شرایط طبیعی پیشنهاد داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of Optimum Composted Manure Application Rate for Erosion Control for Runoff and Soil loss under Simulated Rainfall

نویسندگان [English]

  • Leila Gholami 1
  • Kaka Shahedi 2
  • Ataollah Kavian 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
چکیده [English]

Given that, a lot of soil lost from watershed area by erosion factors. The application of management methods is necessary for soil loss control. Therefore, the use of the available, economical and environmentally friendly conditioners can be the suitable approach in soil loss and runoff control. On the other hand, the soil and water conservation need to the suitable amount determination of soil conditioners to be in addition to reducing costs, from water contaminants prevented with application of chemical fertilizers. However, the optimum amount determination of soil various conditioners with quantifying aim of this effect less attended on runoff and soil loss components. Accordingly, in this study, the effect of various amounts of manure compost with rates of 2.25, 4.5, 9.0 and 18.0 t ha-1 on amount of runoff and soil loss from experimental plot with area of 0.5 m2, slope of 20 percent, was conducted using rainfall intensity of 50 mm h-1 for duration of 10 min in agricultural soil that it collected from Sari province in year 2018. The results of statistical analysis indicated on the significant effect of various amounts of manure compost on changes of increasing time to runoff and decreasing runoff volume and coefficient, soil loss and sediment concentration in level of 99 percent. Also, the study of conservation effect and grouping various amount of manure compost showed that the compost with rate of 9.0 t ha-1 for the same effect with amount of 18.0 t ha-1 on changing runoff coefficient and sediment concentration can suggest as the optimum and practical amount in natural conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Amount of compost optimum
  • changes of sediment concentration
  • soil organic conditioner
  • water erosion control
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