اثر بهره‌برداری بی‌رویه و تغییر کاربری زمین بر شورشدگی آب زیرزمینی با کاربرد مفهوم آسیب‌پذیری در آبخوان قائم شهر-جویبار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای گروه آبخیزداری، دانشکده‌ی منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشیار گروه آبخیزداری، دانشکده‌ی منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 استادیار گروه آبیاری و زه‌کشی، پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

آسیب‌پذیری آب‌های زیرزمینی به‌دلیل حساسیت ذاتی و ورود منابع آلاینده‌ی انسان‌ساز است. در این تحقیق برای بررسی آسیب‌پذیری آبخوان قائمشهر-جویبار از اطلاعات 64 چاه نمونه‌برداری کیفی، 20 چاه مشاهده‌یی و بیش از 28000 چاه بهره‌برداری به‌کار برده شد. برای تهیه‌ی نقشه‌های آسیب‌پذیری در سال‌های 2004 تا 2014 عوامل مؤثر در آسیب‌پذیری ذاتی آبخوان شامل هدایت آبی، نوع آبخوان، فاصله از ساحل، ضخامت آبخوان و عوامل مؤثر در آسیب‌پذیری ویژه شامل تراکم چاه، افت آب زیرزمینی، تأثیر نسبی نفوذ آب دریا، وضعیت بالازدگی آب ‌شور و شیب آبی به‌کار برده شد. نتایج نشان داد که کیفیت منابع آب زیرزمینی از 2004 تا 2014 با توجه به معیارهای شوری هدایت الکتریکی، مجموع نمک‌های باقی‌مانده و نسبت جذب سدیم رو به کاهش است. عامل کاربری زمین نیز برای تهیه‌ی نقشه‌های آسیب‌پذیری اصلاح‌شده برای این سال‌ها به‌کار گرفته‌شد. نتایج نشان داد که زراعت آبی در این دوره هشت درصد کاهش‌یافته، اما میزان آسیب‌پذیری در پهنه‌های پرخطر افزایش‌یافته است. از علت‌های کاهش کیفیت منابع آب زیرزمینی می‌توان افزایش نرخ آب‌کشی و کشت دوباره در تابستان را برشمرد. میانگین ضریب همبستگی طبقه‌های آسیب‌پذیر به شوری با معیارهای شوری در سال 2004 از 0/65 به 0/9 و در 2014 از 0/78 به 0/87 بهبود یافته است. درمجموع با توجه به پیچیدگی‌های مدل‌سازی کیفی و انتقال نمک‌ها و شوری آب زیرزمینی، نقشه­های آسیب‌پذیری اصلاح‌شده می‌تواند ابزار مناسبی برای آگاهی از شورشدگی آب زیرزمینی باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Overexpoliation and Land Use Change on Groundwater Resources Salinization Using Vulnerability Concept in the Ghaemshahr-Juybar Aquifer

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Motevalli 1
  • Hamid Reza Moradi 2
  • Saman Javadi 3
1 Department of Watershed Management and Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran
2 Department of Watershed Management and Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran
3 Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Groundwater vulnerability is due to the inherent vulnerability and characteristics of the occurrence of contaminating sources and human-induced pollution. Sixty four quality measuring wells, 20 observation wells and more than 28000 operating wells were sampled in order to provide vulnerability maps for 2004 and 2014. The essential factors of the inherent vulnerability included hydraulic conductivity, aquifer type, distance from the coast, and aquifer thickness. Additional factors of specific vulnerability including well density, decline of groundwater level, relative impact of seawater intrusion, condition of saltwater up-coning and hydraulic gradient were also used. The results indicated that the quality of groundwater resources had declined from 2004 to 2014 according to salinity criteria such as electrical indicated by an increase in conductivity (EC), sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and total dissolved solids (TDS). The land use factor was also used to prepare modified vulnerability maps for the year through 2004-2014. The results indicated that while the irrigated area had decreased by 8 percent during this period, the level in high-vulnerability areas had increased, which may be surmised that an increase discharge rate and double-cropping had caused degradation of the groundwater. The results showed that the mean correlation coefficient of vulnerability to salinity classes with salinity criteria such as EC, TDS and SAR had improved in 2004 from 0.65 to 0.9, and in 2014 from 0.78 to 0.87. Duo to the complexity of qualitative modeling, solute transport and groundwater salinity, the modified vulnerability maps is a good tool to predict the impending groundwater salinization.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aquifer management
  • Groundwater balancing
  • Groundwater pollution
  • Seawater intrusion

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