تعیین مناسب‏ ترین راه‌کار مدیریتی برای تعادل‏ بخشیدن به آبخوان دشت ابرکوه با تحلیل سلسله‌مراتبی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 فارغ التحصیل کارشناسی ارشد آبخیزداری، دانشگاه یزد

2 استاد دانشکده منابع طبیعی و کویرشناسی، دانشگاه یزد

3 دانشیار دانشکده منابع طبیعی و کویرشناسی، دانشگاه یزد

4 استادیار دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور

چکیده

در چند دهه­ی اخیر منابع آب‏ زیرزمینی در بسیاری از نقاط جهان، به‎خصوص مناطق خشک و نیمه‏خشک با افت شدید روبه‏رو شده است. در این شرایط، تعیین مهم‏ترین مشکلات و بهترین راه‌کارهای مدیریتی برای حفظ این ذخایر کاری مهم است. هدف این پژوهش شناخت دلایل مؤثر در بی‌تعادلی آبخوان دشت ابرکوه استان یزد است. معیارها و زیرمعیارهای مشکلات منابع آب زیرزمینی و راه‌کارهای مدیریتی آبخوان به‌روش سلسله‌مراتبی طراحی، و ارزش وزنی آن‏ها در نرم‏افزار اکسپرت چویس تعیین شد. نتیجه‌ها نشان داد که عامل کشاورزی با وزن نسبی 76/00% درمقایسه با صنعت، آب‌آشامیدنی و بهداشتی در ایجاد بی‌تعادلی‏ آبخوان مؤثر است. مهم‏ترین مشکلات این بخش به‌ترتیب کشیدن فراتر از مجاز آب (22/6%)، رقابت در بهره‏برداری از آب کشاورزی (20/10%)، سامانه‌‌ی آبیاری (14/50%)، الگوی کشت (12/50%)، سطح زیرکشت (20/8%)، کندن چاه‏های غیرمجاز (6/00%) و توسعه‌ی صنت‌های پرآب‌خواه (4/50%) اولویت‏بندی کرده شد. با توجه به شناختن مهم‏ترین مشکلات، راه‌کارهای مدیریتی برای مهارکردن بحران مدیریت مصرف آب، اصلاح سامانه‌ی آبیاری و الگوی کشت شناسایی و امتیازدهی شد. برای دست‏یابی به این راه‌کارها، زیرمعیارهای مدیریتی شامل نصب‌کردن شمارنده‌های حجمی، رویارویی با آب‌کشی غیرمجاز، جداسازی آب آشامیدنی و بهداشتی، توسعه­ی صنعت‌های کم‌آب‌خواه توصیه می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of the Most Appropriate Management Strategy in Balancinge the Aquifer of the Abarkuh Plain Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sanaz Pourfallah 1
  • Mohammad Reza Ekhtesasi 2
  • Hossein Malekinezhad 3
  • Fatemeh Barzegari 4
1 Graduate Student in Watershed Management, Yazd University, Iran
2 Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources and Desertification, Yazd University, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources and Desertification, Yazd University, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Payame Noor University
چکیده [English]

Groundwater resources have shrunk noticeably in arid and semi-arid areas in recent decades. Therefore, determination of the most important problems of the aquifers and the best management strategies is important. The purpose of this study is to identify in the causes of the imbalance of groundwater in the Abarkuh Plain aquifer, in the Yazd Province. To attain this, the criteria and sub-criteria of groundwater problems were determined using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method in the Expert Choice software. Then, aquifer management strategies were designed using the same process (AHP method). The results indicated that agriculture, with a relative weight of 76.00% compared to industry and domestic water is the most effective consuming sectors in creating the aquifer imbalance. The most important agents in this sector were over-exploitation of the aquifer (22.50%), competition in agricultural water utilization (20.10%), irrigation systems (14.50%), cultivation patterns (12.50%), cultivated land area (8.20%), illegal irrigation wells (6.00%), and the development of high water demand industries (4.50%). Furthermore, the most important solutions for crisis management were irrigation system reform and cultivation pattern correction. To acheive these solutions, management strategies including equipping the wells with the volumetric counters, prevention of illegal pumping, separation of drinking from sanitation water, and development of the low water-consuming industries are suggested.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Abarkuh plain
  • Groundwater resources management
  • Multi-criteria decision making
  • Prioritization
  • Risk Management
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