تأثیر انواع خا ک پوش زیستی بر تثبیت ماسه های روان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا گروه آبخیزداری و مدیریت مناطق بیابانی، دانشکده ی مرتع و آبخیزداری دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 دانشیار گروه آبخیزداری و مدیریت مناطق بیابانی، دانشکده ی مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

3 استادیار بخش مهندسی منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشکده ی کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

فرسایش بادی یکی از بزرگ­ترین مشکلات زیست­محیطی جهان است. طوفان‌های گردوغبار حاصل از جابه­جایی ماسه ­های روان می ­تواند زیان‌های جدی را به مناطق شهری، صنعتی و کشاورزی وارد کند. استفاده از خاک‌پوش یکی از رایج ­ترین روش ­های تثبیت خاک برای جلوگیری از فرسایش بادی و مهارکردن ریزگرد‌ها است. در این پژوهش برای تثبیت ماسه ­های روان از پس‌ماند آلی ویناس و فیلتر­کیک حاصل از کارخانه‌های قند و کودبازیافته (کمپوست) در ترکیب با رس استفاده شد. آزمایش در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 14 تیمار (نوع خاک‌پوش آلی) انجام شد. برای آماده‌سازی بستر تیمارها از ماسه ­های بادی دشت دژگاه در استان فارس استفاده شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی برای ماسه‌بادی در سینی ­های مخصوص دستگاه تونل باد به ابعاد 50×30 ×1 سانتی ­متر پاشیده شد. سپس ویژگی ­های مکانیکی سله ­های ایجاد شده از جمله ضخامت، مقاومت فروروی، مقاومت برشی، سرعت آستانه‌ی فرسایش و فرسایش‌پذیری تیمارها اندازه ­گیری شد. نتایج تحلیل واریانس نشان دادند که اثر نوع خاک‌پوش بر مقاومت فشاری و برشی و فرسایش‌پذیری بادی در سطح پنج درصد معنی‌دار بود. براساس مقایسه‌ی میانگین ­ها با آزمون چند دامنه‌ایی دانکن مقاومت برشی و فروروی خاک‌پوش 1 با ترکیب 25 گرم کودبازیافته + 100 گرم ویناس + 100 گرم رس بیش‌ترین، و فرسایش‌پذیری بادی آن کم‌ترین بود. باتوجه به­ تخریب ­پذیری زیستی و توجیه ­پذیری اقتصادی آن (هزینه‌ی اجرایی کم‌تر از خاک‌پوش‌های نفتی و پلیمری) بهترین ترکیب خاک‌پوش برای تثبیت ماسه ­های روان شناخته شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effectiveness of Biological Mulch Types on Sand Dune Stabilization

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masume Sabzi 1
  • Hamid Reza Asgari 2
  • Seyed Fakhreddin Afzali 3
1 Ph.D. Student., Dept. of Watershed Management and Desert Regions Management, Faculty of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Agriculture and Natural Resource, University of Gorgan, Iran
2 Associate Prof., Dept. of Watershed Management and Desert Regions Management, Faculty of Range land and Watershed Management, Agriculture and Natural Resource University of Gorgan, Iran
3 Assistant Prof., Dept. of Natural Resourse & Enviormental Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Iran
چکیده [English]

Wind erosion is considered a major global environmental problem. Sands torms cause serious damages to municipal, industrial and agricultural areas. Mulch is one of the most common materials for soil stabilization, which mitigates wind erosion and dust formation. In this research different combinations of organic (waste press mud, beet vinasse dunder and
compost) were used in combination with clay as a stabilizer. Sandy soil from the Dejgah plain, the Provice of Fars, was used as the erodible material. Experiments were carried out in a completely randomized desing (CRD) with 14 treatments (organic mulch type). The mulches were sprinkled on plots of 50×30×1 cm sand. The thickness and mechanical properties of the mulched layear, namely the: shear strength, penetration resistance, and wind erodibility of the treatments were measured. Based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the effects of mulch type on thickness, penetration resistance, and shear strength of surface soil were highly significant (p<0.05). Based on comparison of means with the Duncan's multiple range test, the M1 treatment with 25g compost+100g vinasse+100g clay had the highest thickness, penetration resistance, shear strength and the lowest amount of wind erodibility. Due to the biodegradability and economic justification (lower operating cost than petroleum and polymeric mulches), the organic mulch was recognized as the best combination for stabilizing sandy soils.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Organic waste
  • resistance
  • sand dune stabilization
  • wind erosion control

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