بررسی تأثیر چرای دام بر تغییرات زیست‌توده و بازآوری گونه های .Festuca ovina L و .Alopecurus textilis Boiss در مراتع منطقه‌ی پیست اسکی آلوارس در جنوب شرقی سبلان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد مرتعداری، گروه منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

2 دانشیارگروه منابع طبیعی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

3 استادیار گروه منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

4 استادیار دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

هدف از این تحقیق، بررسی تأثیر شدت­های مختلف چرای دام بر تغییرات بیوماس و تلاش بازآوری گونه­های Festuca ovina L. و Alopecurus textilis Boiss. می­باشد. سه شدت چرایی (سبک، متوسط و سنگین) با استفاده از روش 4 عامله تعیین شد. در هر مکان 3 ترانسکت 50 متری به‌طور تصادفی مستقر و روی هر ترانسکت ده پایه از هرگونه انتخاب و نمونه­گیری اندام­های هوایی و زیرزمینی در زمان گلدهی انجامشد. بعد از تفکیک اندام­های زایشی و رویشی و توزین مادۀ خشک آن­ها در هر دو گونه، داده­ها به منظور بررسی عکس­العمل گیاه در مقابل چرا و مقایسۀ مکان‌­ها نسبت به اختصاص ماده خشک به اندام­های مختلف در گونه­های مورد مطالعه، با استفاده از آزمون­های آماری تجزیه واریانس یکطرفه و توکـی در نرم افزارSPSS16 تجزیه و تحلیل شدند. نتایج نشان داد که شدت­های مختلف چرای دام بر بیوماس کل و وزن (ساقه، برگ، ریشه، گل­آذین و بیوماس هوایی) و طول (ریشه، گل­آذین و ارتفاع هوایی) تأثیر معنی­دار داشته است (01/0p<). نتایج حاصل از رابطه رگرسیونی بین وزن کل و وزن ماده خشک گل­آذین گونه­ها نشان داد که با کاهش وزن کل گونه­های تحت چرا وزن گل­آذین نیز کاهش یافته و همبستگی بین آن­ها وجود دارد. تلاش بازآوری (درصد وزن خشک گل­آذین به بیوماس هوایی) نیز با افزایش چرا افزایش یافته است. در گونه F. ovina وزن گل­آذین به­ترتیب در منطقه چرای سبک 38/2، چرای متوسط 91/1 و چرای سنگین 99/0گرم در متر مربع و در گونه A. textilis نیز به همان ترتیب 15/3، 58/2 و 53/1 گرم در متر مربع به­دست آمد. درصد تلاش بازآوری در گونهF.ovina  به ­ترتیب در شدت چرای سبک، متوسط و سنگین برابر 44/16، 77/19و24/20 درصد و در گونه A. textilisنیز به همان ترتیب93/16، 74/17و56/18 درصد به­دست آمد. در مجموع، هر دو گونه در شدت چرای سنگین بیشترین میزان تلاش برای بازآوری را دارند و سهم بیشتری از منابع خود را به تولید مثل از طریق جنسی اختصاص می­دهند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Livestock Grazing on Biomass Variation and Reproduction of Festuca ovina L. and Alupecurus textilis Boiss. at the Rangelands of Alvares Ski Resort in Southeast of Sabalan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Leila Mashkori 1
  • Ardavan Ghorbani 2
  • Masomeh Amirkhani 3
  • Hassan Khosravi 4
1 Graduated MSc. of Range Management at the Department of Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
3 Assistance Professor, Department of Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, at the Department of Range & Watershed Management, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different grazing intensity on biomass variation and reproductive effort of Festuca ovina L. and Alupecurus textilis Boiss. Three grazing intensity (light, medium and heavy) using the 4-factor method were determined. In each site, 3 transects with 50 meters long randomly were established and on each transect 10 bunch of species were selected and aboveground and underground sampling at the time of flowering stage was sampled. After separation of reproductive and vegetative organs and weighing the dry matter in both species, data for evaluating the reaction of plants against grazing and comparison sites to dry matter to different organs in the studied species, one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test were analyzed using SPSS16 software. The results show that different intensities of grazing onthe total biomass and weight (stems, leaves, roots, inflorescences, biomass) and length (root, inflorescence and aerial height) have significant effect (P<0.01). The results of the regression equation between the total weight and the weight of inflorescences dry matter showed that by reducing the total weight of the species under the grazing, the weight of inflorescence is also reduced and there are correlations between them. Reproductive effort(percentinflorescence dry weight ratio to the aboveground biomass)was also has increased by the increase of grazing intensity. In F. ovina species, inflorescences weights were obtained 2.38, 1.91 and 0.99 grper square meter for light, medium and heavy grazing, and in A. textilis species were 3.15, 2.58 and 1.53 per square meter as the same as, respectively. Percent of reproductive effort were obtained 16.93, 19.77 and 20.24 for light, medium, and heavy grazing in F. ovina and in the A. textilis species were 16.93, 17.74 and 18.56 as the same as, respectively. Thus, two species under the heavy grazing intensity have the highest reproductive efforts and they allocate more their resource to sexual reproduction.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • grazing intensity
  • Reproductive
  • Alupecurus textilis Boiss
  • Festuca ovina L
  • Ardabil province
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