عنوان مقاله [English]
Development and improvement of soil erosion estimation schemes with providing feature to examine various strategies effects of land management on soil losses is essential to land science experts. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is one of the primitive empirical models in estimation of erosion that is used continuously. In this study, the efficiency amount of USLE and some of its versions include MUSLT،USLEM،MUSLE-E،MUSLE-S, AUSLE and AOF are evaluated in North Khorasan semi-arid rangelands in event base and for 20 selected events. For this goal, the measured sediments due to 20 events in three plots with same characteristics include range land use and without protective measures are considered and compared with estimated values for each version. The results show that the estimated obtained from MUSLT, MUSLE-E, MUSLE-S and USLEM methods have significant correlation with the observed sediment and the modeling procedure in these methods is logical than others. The MUSLT has the lowest Relative Root Mean Square Errors (RRMSE = 4.257) and greatestMean Efficiency(ME=0.011) has a relative efficiency in estimating of observed sediment in event base in the studied area. Other considered methods estimate non-reasonable sediment values.
1. Boardman, J., Ligneau, L., De Roo, A.P.J. and Vandaele, K. )1994). Flooding of property by runoff from agricultural land in northwestern Europe. Geomorph, NO, 10. pp:183-196.
2. Clark, R.D. (1980). Erosion condition classification system.Bureau of Land Management, Denver Service Center, Denver, CO. Tech Note 346.
3. Esmaeli, A. and Abdolahi, KH. (2010). Watershed Managment and Soil Conservation. MohagheghArdebili Co. Ardabil.
4. Foster, G.R. and Meyer, L.D. (1977). Soil erosion and sedimentation by water and overview Process. National Symposium on Soil Erosion and Sedimentation by Water.Am.Soc. Of Agric. Eng, Michigan, pp: 1-13.
5. Gholami, L. (2007). Presentation of estimation of sediment production model for Gheshlagh watershed, KordestanProvince, Msc thesis of watershed management .TarbiatModares university.
6. Hashemi, S.A.A., Arabkhedri, M. (2007). Evaluating of EPM model using measurement method in small dam reservoirs.Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Vol,11, No,42. B. pp: 345-355.
7. Kargar, M. (2013). Comparison of EfficiencyUSLE model and some of its versions in standard plot in Event Based. Msc thesis of watershed management .Islamic Azad University –Nour Branch.
8. Kinnell, P.I.A. (2001). The USLE-M and modeling erosion within cachments.10th International soil Conservation Organization Meeting held, PurdueUniversity and the USDA-ARS National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory. pp:924-928.
9. Kinnell, P.I.A. and Risse, L.M. (1998). USLE-M: Empirical modeling rainfall erosion though runoff and sediment concentration. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.,VOL 62.pp: 1667-1672.
10. Miguel, p., Samuel-Rosa, A., SimaoDinizDalmolin, R., de AraْjoPedron, F., MouraBueno, J., Balbinot, A. (2011). The USLE model for estimating soil erosion in complex topography areas.Annals XV Brazilian Symposium on Remote Sensing, (SBSR), Brasil.pp: 9227-9230.
11. Morris, G.L., Fan, J. (1998). Reservoir Sedimentation Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co. New York.
12. Olivares, B.K., Vargas, D.L., and Silva, O. (2011). Evaluation of the USLE model to estimate water erosion in an Alfisol. J, Soil Sci. Plant Nature, 11 (2). PP: 73 - 86 .
13. Pimental, D., Harvey, C., Resosudarmo, p., Sinclair, K., Kurz, D., McNair ,M., et al. (1995). Environmental costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits. Science, NO. 267.pp: 1117-1123.
14. Pongsai, S., Schmidt, D.V, Rajendra, P., Shrestha, R., Clemente, S. and Eiumnoh, A . (2010). Calibration and validation of the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation for estimating sediment yield on sloping plots: A case study in Khun Satan catchment of northern Thailand. J .Soil Sci, Vol, 90. pp: 585-596.
15. Renard, K.G., Foster, G.R., Weesies, G.A., McCool, D.K. and Yoder, D.C. (1997). Predicting soil erosion by water: A guide to conservation planning with the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE).United States Department of Agriculture Co.
16. Sadeghi, S.H.R., Mizuyama, T. (2007). Applicability of the modified universal soil loss equation for prediction of sediment yield in Khanmirza watershed, Iran.Hydrological Sciences Journal, Vol, 52, No,5. PP: 1068-1075.
17. Sadeghi, S.H.R., Pour ghasemi, H.R., Mohamadi, M. and Agha razi, H. (2008). Assessment of efficiency of USLE and USLE different versions in storm-wise sediment estimation (khosbijan natural resource Research Site-arak). Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Vol,46, No,12. pp: 323-334.
18. Sadeghi, S.H.R., Singh, J.K. and Das, G. (2004). Efficacy of annual soil erosion models for storm-wise sediment prediction. Iran. Intl. Agric. Eng. J, Vol, 13,No,1&2.pp: 1-14.
19. Shahoee, S.S. (1992). Relationship between Factors Associated With The Erosion Rate During a Storm. Selected Papers Of The Third Congress Of SoilSience, Iran.pp: 41-56.
20. Talebbidokhti, N., Shahoei, S., Behnia, A.K., Behbodi, F., Sadeghi, S.H.R., Malek, A. and Sharifi, F. (2003). Special cultural erosion and sediment.national committee erosion and sediment. Iranian National Commission for UNESCO.Press,388p.
21. Williams, J.R. and Berndt, H.D. (1977). Sediment yield prediction based on watershed hydrology. Trans ASAE, Vol, 20,No,6.pp: 1100-1104.
22. Wischmeier, W.H., Smith, D.D. (1978). Predicting rainfall erosion losses - aguide to conservation planning.US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Handbook 537. USDA Washington DC.