مطالعه غنای گونه ای و تشابه پوشش سطحی و بانک بذر خاک در مناطق خشک آتریپلکسکاری شده شهریار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه کویرشناسی سمنان

2 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

پوشش گیاهی را شاید بتوان مهمترین عامل  تاثیرگذار در حفاظت خاک از فرسایش آبی و بادی دانست. مدیریت آگاهانه پوشش گیاهی، نیاز به اطلاعات دقیق و کافی از آن و ظرفیت­های بانک بذر خاک دارد. از طرفی بررسی تغییرات ایجاد شده در پوشش گیاهی و بانک بذر خاک بعد از عملیات اصلاحی می‌تواند روند تغییرات حاصل از مدیریت را بیش از پیش نمایان سازد. رابطه­ی بین این دو لزوم مطالعات بعد از عملیات اصلاحی را برجسته‌تر می‌کند. برای تعیین غنای گونه­ای و تشابه پوشش سطحی و بانک بذر خاک، از مناطق آتریپلکس کاری شده 18 ساله قرق و منطقه قرق فاقد بوته‌کاری نمونه‌برداری صورت گرفت. نمونه­برداری بانک بذر در پاییز 1389 به روش تصادفی سیستماتیک در طول 4 اندازه‌گیری نواری200 متری در هر منطقه انجام شد. 5 قطعه‌‌ی یک متر مربعی به فواصل 50 متری در طول هر اندازه‌گیری نواری(جمعا 20 قطعه در هر منطقه) مستقر گردید. نمونه­های خاک از دو عمق 5-0 و 10-5 سانتی‌متر به وسیله­ی  مته نمونه‌برداری خاک  به قطر 5/2 سانتی‌متر برداشت و به گلخانه منتقل و در بستر مناسب کشت گردیدند. همچنین بررسی و ثبت پوشش گونه‌های گیاهی در هر قطعه‌ در دو مرحله پاییز و بهار 1390، به روش تخمین انجام شد. تعداد گونه­هایی که از خاک استحصالی از هر قطعه در گلخانه جوانه زد و شناسایی شد، به‌عنوان غنای گونه‌ای آن نمونه به‌حساب آمد. از شاخص کیفی سورنسون جهت اندازه گیری تشابه بین بانک بذر خاک و پوشش گیاهی سطح زمین در هر قطعه استفاده شد. برای مقایسه خصوصیات بانک بذر خاک شامل تشابه بانک بذر با پوشش روی‌زمینی، غنای بانک بذر، کلاس­های خوشخوراکی و شکلها زیستی بین دو منطقه از آزمون t غیر جفتی استفاده شد. جهت مقایسه­ی هر کدام از خصوصیات بانک بذر خاک بین دو عمق هر منطقه از آزمون t جفتی استفاده شد. از آزمون تجزیه واریانس یک طرفه و دانکن جهت مقایسه­ی کلاس­های خوشخوراکی و شکلها زیستی در هر منطقه بطور جداگانه استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که در مورد تشابه بانک بذر خاک و پوشش روی زمینی، همچنین غنای بانک بذر خاک درعمق 5-0 و 10-5 سانتی­متری بین منطقه بوته‌کاری و فاقد بوته­کاری اختلاف معنی­دار وجود  دارد. نتایج نشان داد که تشابه بانک بذر خاک با پوشش سطح زمین در منطقه بوته‌کاری برای عمق اول 60% و برای عمق دوم 24% و در منطقه­ی فاقد بوته­کاری برای عمق اول 84% و برای عمق دوم 40% است. تمامی کلاس‌های خوشخوراکی بین دو منطقه اختلاف معنی­دار نشان داد. از بین شکل‌های زیستی به جز همی­کریپتوفیت­ها باقی شکلها زیستی دارای اختلاف معنی­دار بین دو منطقه بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study the species richness and similarity of plant cover and soil seed bank in arid areas of Atriplex plantation (Case Study: Shahriar)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Sadeghipour 1
  • Pariya Kamali 2
  • Nadiya Kazemi 3
1 Faculty of Desert Studies, Semnan University
2 Tarbiat Modares University
3 Tehran University
چکیده [English]

Plant cover may be the most important factor in conserving the soil from water and wind erosion. Wise management of plant cover needs accurate and sufficient information from vegetation and soil seed bank capacity. Evaluation of changes in vegetation and soil seed bank after a restoration operation can show the role of land management. The relation between these two indicates the necessity of study the areas after restoration operation. To determine the species richness and similarity of plants and soil seed bank, sampling was done in ungrazed 18 year old Atriplex cultivated area and natural exclosure non-cultivated area. In the fall of 2010 randomized-systematic sampling of seed bank was conducted along four 200 m transects in each region. Five one-square-meter plots with 50 meter intervals along each transect (total of 20 plots in each region) were deployed. Soil samples from the depth of 0-5 and 5-10 cm were collected using auger and transferred to the greenhouse for planting in the proper beds. Plant cover was also estimated and recorded in the fall and spring of 2011 in each plot. Sorenson’s quantitative index was used to measure the similarity between soil seed bank and vegetation cover in each plot. To compare the characteristics of soil seed bank, containing seed bank similarity to vegetation, seed bank richness, palatability classes and life forms, between two regions, unpaired t-test, and between two depths of each region paired t-test were applied. One-way ANOVA and Duncan's test were used separately to compare the palatability classes and life forms in each region. The results showed that, similarity of plant cover and soil seed bank, also soil seed bank richness in the depths of 0-5 and 5-10 cm had significant difference between planted and non-planted areas. The results also showed that similarity of soil seed bank and plant cover in the planted area is 60% for the first depth and 24% for the second depth. It’s 84% in the first and 40% in the second depth of non-planted area. All palatability classes showed significant difference between two regions. All kinds of life forms except Hemicryptophytes had significant difference between two areas.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil seed bank
  • sorensen similarity index
  • life forms
  • palatability class
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