تغییرات زمانی کوتاه مدت رواناب، غلظت رسوب در کاربری های اراضی مختلف و دو شدت بارش

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گنبد کاووس

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد آبخیزداری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 کارشناسی مرتع و آبخیزداری

4 مربی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه گنبد کاووس

چکیده

تغییر کاربری اراضی بر ویژگی­های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک و در نتیجه آن بر مولفه­های هیدرولوژیکی مانند حجم روان­آب و غلظت رسوب تاثیر می­گذارد. اطلاعات کمی درباره تغییر پذیری زمانی این مولفه­های هیدرولوژیکی در کاربری­ها و شدت بارش­های مختلف وجود دارد، لذا هدف از این تحقیق بررسی اثر کاربری­های مختلف اراضی بر زمان شروع روان­آب، حجم روان­آب و غلظت رسوب در دو شدت انتخابی است. به این منظور با استفاده از شبیه­ساز باران اثر دو شدت بارش 51 و 86 میلی­متر بر ساعت در چهار کاربری مرتع، عدس، کاه و کلش و زمین بایر در پلات یک متر مربعی در ایجاد روان­آب و رسوب در پایگاه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه گنبد مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. هم­چنین تغییرات زمانی میزان روان­آب و غلظت رسوب برای مدت 30 دقیقه در فواصل زمانی 6 دقیقه برای هر کاربری اندازه­گیری شد. نتایج تحقیق حاکی از تفاوت معنی­دار زمان شروع روان­آب، حجم روان­آب و غلظت رسوب در سطح احتمال پنج درصد در دو شدت بارش مورد مطالعه با توجه به نوع کاربری بود. حجم روان­آب و غلظت رسوب در همه­ی بازه­های زمانی مورد بررسی در سطح احتمال پنج درصد تفاوت معنی­داری داشت. حجم روان­آب در کاربری­های مختلف در شدت­های بارش 51 و 86 میلی­متر بر ساعت به­ترتیب از 3/2 تا 24 لیتر و از 38/6 تا 8/46 لیتر در 30 دقیقه متغیر بود. هم­چنین غلظت رسوب در شدت­ بارش 86 میلی­متر بر ساعت به­ترتیب در کاربری مرتع، عدس، کاه و کلش و بایر 59/0، 63/0، 16/1 و 85/1 گرم در لیتر و در شدت بارش 51 میلی­متر به­ترتیب 35/0، 48/0، 79/0 و 26/1 گرم در لیتر بود. در دو شدت بارش مورد بررسی، اختلاف میانگین حجم روان­آب و غلظت رسوب در کاربری­های مطالعه شده با آزمون T- استودنت نشان­دهنده تفاوت معنی­داری بود. هم­چنین نتایج آزمون T- استودنت نشان داد که حجم روا­ن­آب به غیر از کاربری عاری از پوشش، در بقیه کاربری­های مورد مطالعه تفاوت معنی­داری در سطح %5 دارند و غلظت رسوب فقط در پلات کاربری مرتع در سطح %5 اختلاف معنی­داری دارند

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Short-Term Temporal Variations in Runoff, Sediment Concentration in Different Land uses under Two Rainfall Intensities

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamed Rouhani 1
  • Soudabeh Ghareh-Mahmodlu 2
  • Tahmineh Torkashvand 3
  • Mojtaba Kashani 4
1 Assistant Prof., Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Gonbad_e_ Kavous University
2 M.Sc. Student of watershed management, Tarbiat Modares University
3 Graduated student in Range and watershed management
4 Lecturer, Faculty of Science, Gonbad_e_ Kavous University
چکیده [English]

Land use change has a significant effect on soil physical and chemical characteristics and subsequent changes in hydrologic responses such as runoff volume and sediment concentration. Although numerous studies have mentioned vegetation cover impacts on soil erosion, relatively a few studies have quantified the temporal variation of hydrological response of runoff and sediment production under different land use and rainfall intensities. A replicated field-based rainfall simulation were performed at two selected intensities (51 and 86 mmh-1) in 1m2 plots on four types of land cover (rangeland, bare soil, straw mulching, and lentil filed) at Gonbad University research site. Behaviors of runoff and sediment concentrations during 30 min rainfall simulation test were made at every 6 min intervals. The ANOVA results showed that there were significant differences between the hydrological response of the soil depending on the vegetation covers and rainfall intensities over time. The different land uses in this study resulted in runoff volumes ranging from 2.3 lit to 24 lit and from 6.38 to 46.8 lit at 30 min for 51 and 86 mmhr-1 rainfall intensity, respectively. On the other hand, bare soil was most easily detached, followed by straw mulching, lentil, and rangeland. Although Student's t-test showed that there were significant effects of rainfall intensities in runoff volume on all plots except on bare soil plot. These differences are all significant at the P = 0.05 level. Moreover, only there was a statistically significant difference in sediment concentrations of rangeland plot.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • rainfall simulator
  • Hydrological response
  • erosion
  • Gonbad
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